Антивирус по английски

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ПО, предназначенное для обнаружения и удаления вирусов.

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антивирус — антивирус … Орфографический словарь-справочник

АНТИВИРУС — АНТИВИРУС, термин, введенный А. Безредка (Париж) для обозначения гипотети ческ. вещества, находящегося в жидких бактерийных культурах и фильтратах и действующего на вирус (см.) как антагонист. Оно заключено, по предположению Безредка, в живой… … Большая медицинская энциклопедия

антивирус — сущ., кол во синонимов: 5 • антивирусник (3) • защита (93) • каспер (1) • … Словарь синонимов

антивирус — антивирусный ПО, предназначенное для обнаружения и удаления вирусов. [http://www.morepc.ru/dict/] Тематики информационные технологии в целом EN antivirus … Справочник технического переводчика

антивирус — м. Название программы, обнаруживающей вирус в памяти компьютера и нейтрализующей его действия (в информатике). Толковый словарь Ефремовой. Т. Ф. Ефремова. 2000 … Современный толковый словарь русского языка Ефремовой

Антивирус — … Википедия

антивирус — комп. программа для обнаружения и удаления (или карантина) вредоносных программ вирусов на компьютере. Вместе с файерволлом является необходимым средством безопасности компьютера Новый словарь иностранных слов. by EdwART, , 2009 … Словарь иностранных слов русского языка

антивирус — антив ирус, а … Русский орфографический словарь

антивирус — (2 м); мн. антиви/русы, Р. антиви/русов … Орфографический словарь русского языка

антивирус — антиви/рус, а … Слитно. Раздельно. Через дефис.

антивирус — а; м. Информ. Антивирусная программа для компьютера … Энциклопедический словарь

Реферат выполнен студентом 4 курса по специальности «Автоматизированные системы управления» ГБОУ СПО «Подмосковсный колледж «Энергия

Министерство образования Московской области

ГБОУ СПО МО «Подмосковный колледж «Энергия»»

по предмету: Английский язык

т ема работы: «Anti-viruses»

Студент 4АСУ-2-10 _______________ Захаров Д.Ю.

(Шифр группы) (подпись) (инициалы, фамилия)

Специальность _ 230103 «Автоматизированные системы обработки ________

________ информации и управления (по отраслям) _________

Проверил: преподаватель английского языка

Можаева Алла Викторовна

Работа защищена _______________ Оценка __________________

Table of Contents

History of anty-viruses apperarance

Issues of concern 4

Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or even destroyed data on infected computers.

There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product. Possibly the first publicly documented removal of a computer virus in the wild was performed by Bernd Fix in 1987. There were also two antivirus applications for the Atari ST platform developed in 1987. The first one was G Data and second was UVK 2000.

Fred Cohen, who drafted one of the first academic papers on computer viruses in 1984, began to develop strategies for antivirus software in 1988 that were picked up and continued by later antivirus software developers. In 1987, he drafted a demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses.

In 1987 the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting.

Also in 1988 a mailing list named VIRUS-L was started on the BITNET/EARN network where new viruses and the possibilities of detecting and eliminating viruses were discussed. Some members of this mailing list like John McAfee or Eugene Kaspersky later founded software companies that developed and sold commercial antivirus software.

Before internet connectivity was widespread, viruses were typically spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated relatively infrequently. During this time, virus checkers essentially had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online.

Over the years it has become necessary for antivirus software to check an increasing variety of files, rather than just executables, for several reasons:

  • Powerful macros used in word processor applications, such as Microsoft Word, presented a risk. Virus writers could use the macros to write viruses embedded within documents. This meant that computers could now also be at risk from infection by opening documents with hidden attached macros.
  • The possibility of embedding executable objects inside otherwise non-executable file formats can make opening those files a risk.
  • Later email programs, in particular Microsoft’s Outlook Express and Outlook, were vulnerable to viruses embedded in the email body itself. A user’s computer could be infected by just opening or previewing a message.

As always-on broadband connections became the norm, and more and more viruses were released, it became essential to update virus checkers more and more frequently. Even then, a new zero-day virus could become widespread before antivirus companies released an update to protect against it .

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Frederick B. Cohen’s 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses.

There are several methods which antivirus software can use to identify malware:

  • Signature based detection is the most common method. To identify viruses and other malware, antivirus software compares the contents of a file to a dictionary of virus signatures. Because viruses can embed themselves in existing files, the entire file is searched, not just as a whole, but also in pieces.
  • Heuristic-based detection like malicious activity detection, can be used to identify unknown viruses.
  • File emulation is another heuristic approach. File emulation involves executing a program in a virtual environment and logging what actions the program performs. Depending on the actions logged, the antivirus software can determine if the program is malicious or not and then carry out the appropriate disinfection actions.

Running multiple antivirus programs concurrently can degrade performance and create conflicts. However, using a concept called multiscanning, several companies (including G Data and Microsoft) have created applications which can run multiple engines concurrently.

It is sometimes necessary to temporarily disable virus protection when installing major updates such as Windows Service Packs or updating graphics card drivers.Active antivirus protection may partially or completely prevent the installation of a major update. Anti-virus software can cause problems during the installation of an operating system upgrade, e.g. when upgrading to a newer version of Windows «in place» — without erasing the previous version of Windows. Microsoft recommends that anti-virus software be disabled to avoid conflicts with the upgrade installation process.

The functionality of a few computer programs can be hampered by active anti-virus software. For example True Crypt, a disk encryption program, states on its troubleshooting page that anti-virus programs can conflict with True Crypt and cause it to malfunction or operate very slowly. Anti-virus software can impair the performance and stability of games running in the Steam platform.

Support issues also exist around antivirus application interoperability with common solutions like SSL VPN remote access and network access control products. These technology solutions often have policy assessment applications which require that an up to date antivirus is installed and running. If the antivirus application is not recognized by the policy assessment, whether because the antivirus application has been updated or because it is not part of the policy assessment library, the user will be unable to connect.

Studies in December 2007 showed that the effectiveness of antivirus software had decreased in the previous year, particularly against unknown or zero day attacks. The computer magazine c t found that detection rates for these threats had dropped from 40-50% in 2006 to 20-30% in 2007. At that time, the only exception was the NOD32 antivirus, which managed a detection rate of 68 percent.

The problem is magnified by the changing intent of virus authors. Some years ago it was obvious when a virus infection was present. The viruses of the day, written by amateurs, exhibited destructive behavior or pop-ups. Modern viruses are often written by professionals, financed by criminal organizations.

Independent testing on all the major virus scanners consistently shows that none provide 100% virus detection. The best ones provided as high as 99.9% detection for simulated real-world situations, while the lowest provided 91.1% in tests conducted in August 2013. Many virus scanners produce false positive results as well, identifying benign files as malware.

Although methodologies may differ, some notable independent quality testing agencies include AV-Comparatives, ICSA Labs, West Coast Labs, Virus Bulletin, AV-TEST and other members of the Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization.

Anti-virus programs are not always effective against new viruses, even those that use non-signature-based methods that should detect new viruses. The reason for this is that the virus designers test their new viruses on the major anti-virus applications to make sure that they are not detected before releasing them into the wild.

Some new viruses, particularly ransomware, use polymorphic code to avoid detection by virus scanners. Jerome Segura, a security analyst with ParetoLogic, explained:

It’s something that they miss a lot of the time because this type of [ransomware virus] comes from sites that use a polymorphism, which means they basically randomize the file they send you and it gets by well-known antivirus products very easily. I’ve seen people firsthand getting infected, having all the pop-ups and yet they have antivirus software running and it’s not detecting anything. It actually can be pretty hard to get rid of, as well, and you’re never really sure if it’s really gone. When we see something like that usually we advise to reinstall the operating system or reinstall backups.

A proof of concept virus has used the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to avoid detection from anti-virus software. The potential success of this involves bypassing the CPU in order to make it much harder for security researchers to analyse the inner workings of such malware.

Cloud antivirus is a technology that uses lightweight agent software on the protected computer, while offloading the majority of data analysis to the provider’s infrastructure.

One approach to implementing cloud antivirus involves scanning suspicious files using multiple antivirus engines. This approach was proposed by an early implementation of the cloud antivirus concept called CloudAV. CloudAV was designed to send programs or documents to a network cloud where multiple antivirus and behavioral detection programs are used simultaneously in order to improve detection rates. Parallel scanning of files using potentially incompatible antivirus scanners is achieved by spawning a virtual machine per detection engine and therefore eliminating any possible issues. CloudAV can also perform «retrospective detection,» whereby the cloud detection engine rescans all files in its file access history when a new threat is identified thus improving new threat detection speed. Finally, CloudAV is a solution for effective virus scanning on devices that lack the computing power to perform the scans themselves.

Some examples of cloud anti-virus products are Panda Cloud Antivirus and Immunet.

Компания Cezurity, российский разработчик средств защиты от вредоносных программ и хакерских атак, объявляет о выходе версии Антивирусного Сканера с англоязычным интерфейсом. На английском языке начиная с сегодняшнего дня можно получить и техническую поддержку сервиса. Таким образом, проверить и вылечить свои компьютеры с помощью Сканера теперь могут все англоязычные пользователи из разных регионов.

Английский стал первым после русского языком, на котором доступен Антивирусный Сканер. С технической точки зрения в продукт была добавлена поддержка мультиязычности — теперь выбрать язык интерфейса можно либо в процессе установки Сканера на компьютер, либо изменив его в разделе настроек. Мультиязычность позволяет добавлять новые языки для интерфейса без внесения значительных изменений в саму программу. При этом основная часть работы по добавлению новых языков теперь может выполняться сторонними специалистами, не являющимися сотрудниками Cezurity — это значительно упростит выпуск локализованных версий, предназначенных для других регионов.

“Поддержка английского языка откроет наш сервис для очень широкого круга людей, — говорит Алексей Чалей, генеральный директор Cezurity, — хотя мы не планировали на этот год никаких шагов по выходу на зарубежные рынки, мы видим интерес к Сканеру со стороны пользователей из разных стран — нам часто приходилось отвечать на вопросы об англоязычном интерфейсе. С другой стороны, мы расширили возможности нашей вирусной лаборатории, которая теперь будет оперативнее получать информацию об угрозах, распространяющихся по всему миру”.

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